Phonetics Outline

The absolute path for you to speak and sound like a native speaker of English.


  1. Listening Comprehension
    1. Cultures' accepted discoursal sound inventory
    2. Audio input at the phonetic level:   [   ]
      1. Language barrier
      2. Dialects and regional differences
    3. Recognition at the phonemic level:   /   /

  2. Language Production:
    1. Knowledge of culturally accepted discourse
    2. Recognition at the phonemic level:   /   /
    3. Sound output at the phonetic level:   [   ]
      1. Processes
      2. Points of articulation
      3. Manners of articulation
      4. Voiced and voiceless distinction
      5. Oral and nasal distinction
      6. Lateral and central distinction
      7. Aspirated and unaspirated distinction
    4. Syllable structure
      1. Corporal considerations
        1. Onset
        2. Peak
          1. Monophthongs
          2. Diphthongs
          3. Triphthongs
        3. Coda
      2. Consonantal clusters
      3. Rhyme
    5. Minimal pairs
    6. Assimilation
    7. Intonation
    8. Tone


NOTE: Upon course completion, students are highly encouraged to further pursue their studies in English. Both verbal and written feedback about course performance will be provided to the student and kept on record for future evaluation. Letters of recommendation for outside institutions are also provided upon request.

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Instructional Notes

  1. Listening Comprehension

    You have to crawl before you walk and walk before you can run.

    1. Cultures' accepted discoursal sound inventory

      Unknown or culturally inappropriate sounds may create an unwanted bias.

    2. Audio input at the phonetic level:   [   ]

      Background noise may distort or prevent comprehension.

      1. Language barrier

        "Sounds all Greek to me."

      2. Dialects and regional differences

        Geographic and historical perspectives allow migration streams to flow.

    3. Recognition at the phonemic level:   /   /

      Why speakers of different dialects are capable of understanding each other.


  2. Language Production:

    Native or near-native accuracy is obtainable through pragmatic understanding.

    1. Knowledge of culturally accepted discourse

      Uttering taboo words in an improper context ensures negative reactions.

    2. Recognition at the phonemic level:   /   /

      Why speakers of different dialects are capable of understanding each other.

    3. Sound output at the phonetic level:   [   ]

      How to improve your spoken English proficiency.

      1. Processes:

        Initiation Process:

        lungs, trachea, larynx

        Phonation Process:

        glottis, epiglottis, pharynx

        Oro-nasal Process:

        velum: nasal cavity, oral cavity

        Articulation Process:

        Point and Manner of Articulation

      2. Points of articulation
        • bilabial
        • labiodental
        • dental
        • alveolar
        • postalveolar
        • retroflex
        • palatal
        • velar
        • uvular
        • pharyngeal
        • glottal


      3. Manners of articulation
        • plosive/ stop
        • nasal
        • trill
        • tap or flap
        • fricative
        • affricate
        • lateral fricative
        • approximant
        • lateral approximant


      4. Voiced and voiceless distinction

        Whether your vocal cords vibrate or not.

      5. Oral and nasal distinction

        Whether air passes through your oral or nasal cavity.

      6. Lateral and central distinction

        Whether air passes over or around your tongue.

      7. Aspirated and unaspirated distinction

        Aspiration is a breathy noise generated as air passes through the partially closed vocal folds and into the pharynx: a puff of air.

    4. Syllable structure

      How and when consonants and vowels come together.

      1. Corporal considerations

        All orthographic rules are based here: key to active reading proficiency.

        1. Onset

          Syllabic head: only sixty-six possibilities exist in English for your learning pleasure.

        2. Peak

          Syllabic nucleus and foundation: where pitch, volume, and intensity ring true.

          1. Monophthongs

            The cornerstone of vocalic manifestation: just fifteen possibilities awaiting mastery.

          2. Diphthongs

            When short or long vowels join forces; united sounds rise and fall together: twelve possibilities.

          3. Triphthongs

            When the vocalic fortress is well guarded on both sides: six possibilities.

        3. Coda

          Syllabic tail: a multitude of possibilities. Heed my advice on preventing an inappropriate schwa sound in the coda.

      2. Consonantal clusters

        Making things more difficult.

      3. Rhyme

        All phonemes ranging from the syllabic peak to the coda: musicians and poets aspire!

    5. Minimal pairs

      Making things easier.

    6. Assimilation

      Making sense of it all: What you didn’t know, hurt you.

    7. Intonation

      How can one sentence have so many meanings?

    8. Tone

      Utilized when one's consonantal sound inventory is seriously limited, opening up a new dimension of distinction.

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